代詞考點概述

http://www.zymycy.tw 2019-05-06 15:22 教師網 [您的教師考試網]

代詞考點概述

一、概念

代詞是代替名詞的詞, 按其意義、特征及其在句中的作用分為:人稱代詞、物主代詞、指示代詞、反身代詞、相互代詞、疑問代詞、不定代詞和關系代詞等。

二、考察方式

在考題中主要以客觀題為主,如單項選擇、完形填空。此外,寫作和翻譯句式表達中要注意冠詞的正確運用。

三、相關知識點精講

1. 人稱代詞

1)人稱代詞的人稱、數和格:

單數:

主格:I/you/he/she/it

賓格:me/you/him/her/it

復數:

主格:we/you/they

賓格:us/you/them

2)人稱代詞的主格和賓格:通常主格作主語,賓格作賓語。如:

I liketable tennis. (作主語)

Do youknow him?(作賓語)

3)人稱代詞還可作表語。作表語時用賓格。如:

---Who isknocking at the door?

---It’sme.

4)人稱代詞在than之后與其他人或事物進行比較時,用主格和賓格都可以。如:

He isolder than me.

He isolder than I am.

2. 物主代詞

1) 表示所有關系的代詞叫物主代詞。物主代詞分形容詞性物主代詞和名詞性。

形容詞性物主代詞:my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their

名詞性物主代詞:mine/yours/his/hers/its/ours/yours/theirs

2) 形容詞性物主代詞的作用相當于形容詞,可在句中作定語。例如:

Our teacher is coming to see us.

This is her pencil-box.

3) 名詞性物主代詞的作用相當于名詞,在句中可用作主語、賓語和表語。

Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主語)

---Is this English-book yours? (作表語)

--- No, mine is in my bag.

I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作賓語)

3指示代詞

指示代詞包括:this,that,these,those。

1) this和these一般用來指在時間或空間上較近的事物或人,that和those則指時間和空間上較遠的事物或人,例如:

This is apen and that is a pencil.

We are busy these days.

In those days the workers had a hard time.

2)有時that和those指前面講到過的事物,this 和these則是指下面將要講到的事物,例如:

I had a cold. that's why I didn't come.

What I want to say is this; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3)有時為了避免重復提到的名詞,常可用that或those代替,例如:

Televisionsets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in shanghai.

4)this 在電話用語中代表自己,that 則代表對方。例如:

Hello! Thisis Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

4反身代詞

英語中用來表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我們自己","你們自己"等意義的代詞稱為反身代詞。

第一人稱單數:myself 復數:ourselves

第二人稱單數:yourself 復數:yourselves

第三人稱單數:himself/herself/itself 復數:themselves

反身代詞可以在句中作賓語,表語,同位語。

1)作賓語,表示動作的承受者就是動作的發出者,主語和賓語指同一個人或一些人。

He called himself a writer.

Would you please express yourself in English?

2)作表語。

It doesn't matter. I'll be myself soon.

The girl in the news is myself.

3)作主語或賓語的同位語,表示親自或本人。

I myself washed the clothes.(=I washed the clothes myself.)(作主語同位語)

Youshould ask the teacher himself.(作賓語同位語)

5.不定代詞

不是指明代替任何特定名詞的代詞叫做不定代詞,在句中可作主語、表語、賓語和定語。現將幾個常用的不定代詞舉例說明如下:

A. some與any的區別

1).some多用于肯定句,表示“一些,幾個”作形容詞時,后面可以接①不可數名詞+單數動詞;②可數名詞+復數動詞。

Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library.

Some rice in the bag has been sold out.

2).any多用于疑問句、條件句和否定句中,表示“一些,任何”用作形容詞時,后面可以接①不可數名詞+單數動詞;②可數名詞+復數動詞。

If you have any questions, please ask me.

There isn't any orange in the bottle.

Have you got any tea?

3).any和some也可以作代詞用,表示“一些”。any多用于疑問句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中。

How many people can you see in the picture?

I can't see any.

If you have no money, I'll lend you some.

注意:與some, any結合的詞如something,somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody在肯定句、否定句、疑問句、條件句中的用法,大致和some, any的用法相同。

B. few, a few, little, a little在用法上的區別

①用作形容詞:

I'm going to buy a few apples.

He can speak only a little Chinese.

There is only a little milk in the glass.

He has few friends.

They had little money with them.

②a little和little也可以用作副詞,a little表示“有點,稍微”,little表示“很少”。

I'm a little hungry. (修飾形容詞hungry)

Let him sleep a little. (修飾動詞sleep)

Mary, go a little faster, please. (修飾副詞比較級)

She slept very little last night.

C. other, the other, another, others, the others的區別

another 代名詞,單數,另一個

others 代名詞,復數,別人,其他人

another(boy) 形容詞,單數,另一個(男孩)

other(boys) 形容詞,復數,其他男孩

the other 另一個

the others 其余那些人、物

the other (boy) 另一個男孩

the other(boys) 其余那些男孩

①other可以作形容詞用,后面跟復數名詞,意思是“其他的、別的”。

Where are his other books?

I haven't any other books except this one.

②other也可以用作代詞,與冠詞the連用構成“theother”,表示兩個人或物中的“另一個”。常與one搭配構成“one ...,the other ...”句型。

He has two brothers. One is 10 years old, and the other is 5 years old.

She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.

③other作代詞用時,可以有復數“others”,泛指“另外的人或物”。常與some搭配構成“some...., others ...”句型。

Some went to the cinema, and others went swimming.

This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.

④“the others”表示特指某范圍內的剩余其他的人或物”。

We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.

In our class only tom is English, the others are Chinese.

⑤another可以作形容詞用,修飾后面的名詞,意為“另一個”,還可以跟代詞one.

You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?

Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one?

⑥another也可以作代詞用,表示“另一個”。

I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.

D. every與each的區別

The teacher gave a toy to each child.

Each ball has a different colour.

當我們說each child, each student或each teacher時,我們想到的是一個人的情況。而當我們說every child和every student時,我們想到的是全體的情況,every的意思與all接近,表示他們都如此。

Every student loves the English teacher. = All students love the English teacher.

Every child likes playing. = All children like playing.

E. all和both的用法

①all指三者以上,或不可數的東西。謂語動詞既可以用單數,也可以用作復數。在句中作主語、表語、賓語、同位語和定語。

All of us like Mr Pope. 我們都喜歡Pope先生。(作主語)

= We all like Mr Pope. (作同位語)

All the water has been used up. (作主語)

That's all for today. (作表語)

Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作賓語)

All the leaders are here. (作定語)

②both作代詞。

a.與其他名詞或代詞并列出現,表示“兩個都”。

Lucy and lily both agree with us.

They both passed on their sticks at the same time.

How are your parents? They're both fine.

b.與“of +代詞(或名詞)”連用,表示“兩者都”。

Both of them came to see mary.

both of the books are very interesting.

c.單獨使用,表示“兩者(都)”。

Michael has two sons. Both are clever.

I don't know which book is better, I shall read both.

③both用作形容詞,放在名詞之前,修飾該名詞,表示“兩者都”。

Both his younger sisters are our classmates.

There are tall trees on both sides of the street.

6.相互代詞

表示相互關系的代詞叫做相互代詞。相互代詞有each other 和one another兩種形式。在當代英語中,each other和one another沒有什么區別。相互代詞可在句中作賓語,定語。作定語用時,相互代詞用所有格形式。

We should learn from each other / one another. (作賓語)

Do you often write to each other / one another? (作賓語)

We often borrow each other's / one another's books. (作定語)

The students corrected each other's / one another's mistakes in their homework.(作定語)

7. 疑問代詞

疑問代詞有who,whom,whose,what和which等。疑問代詞用于特殊疑問句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作為某一句子成分。例如:

Who is going to come here tomorrow? (作主語)

What is that? (作表語)

Whose umbrella is this? (作定語)

Whom are you waiting for? (作賓語)

8. 連接代詞

連接代詞有:who,whom,whose,what和which用于引導名詞性從句。

9.關系代詞

連接代詞有:who,whom,whose,that和which用于引導名詞性從句。

責任編輯:宗美琦

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